Yogyakarta The City of Tolerance

    Since I live in Indonesia, migration issues become one of the social phenomenon’s that receives considerable attention. Why do people migrate from one region to another? People would probably say to seek opportunities for a better life, or others would say to fulfill their educational purposes. Let us talk a closer look at Indonesia.

    As human beings, being wealthy is one of our goals, and one of the means to attain this goal is through migration. Migration refers to habitually moving from one place to another especially in search for seasonal work. Migration can be international (movement to different countries) or internal (movement within a country, often from rural to urban areas) for example: in Indonesia  some people often move from rural area such Kalimantan, Irian Jaya to Urban area including Jakarta or Jogja  because jakarta, Jogja and some urban area implies better opportunities including economic, education, and etc means that Migrants travel in many different ways and for many different reasons to raise their living standards because fact tells most all of the multinational company are stand over there, thus opening up opportunities for their children, away from hunger, social conflict, and poverty. Being aware of the benefits of migration, this motivates people to move to another region. One thing left is  People migrate for political reasons. political migration refers to the movement due to political / religious issues or ethnic persecution within the country.

  Indonesia is the fourth most populated nation in the world almost 86 percent are muslims and the country is separated by seas. The largest population is in Java with 130 million inhabitants. Indonesia has 17,000 islands extending 5,150 kilometres (3,200 miles) east to west. Ethnically, this country is highly diverse, with over 580 languages, and dialects- but only 13 have more than one million speaker such as madura language, Sundanese (west java) language, Sumatralanguage, Klaimantan language,  Irian Jaya  language and many more[1]. In this stage we can see how plural Indonesia is . It is generally assumed that the higher the diversity, the higher the risk for conflicts to occur. This is because diffent areas contain different cultures and while many people are moving from one to another place, different cultures are confronted with each other and their values are placed under great tension.

    From psychological standpoint, conflicts occur because of social categorization, which is distinguished by inter-group relationships. Studies on emotional experience reveal this phenomenon . When participants experienced more anger when they categorized themselves as members of the harmed group compared to when they did not. Thus social categorization dictated the participants emotional reaction to the situation. Conflict strongly relates to negative emotional reactions since conflicts are fueled by outburst of anger frustration and enmity.

    Conflicts marked with social categorization are common place in Indonesia since 1996 several cases erupted for instance in East Timor, Irian Jaya, and Aceh which were aggravated by separatist movements, and later on ethnic conflicts sucha as Poso and Sampit  which involved massacres of Madura ethnic groups living in the  Kalimantan  region. People were killed with brutal massacre and it became national news at the time, Below I will show you the ethnic conflicts record  since 1970 – 2000

No Parties Involved year Victim
1 Colonial Government – Ethnic China 1730 10.000 were die
2 China – Indonesia 1913 -1914 Unidentified victim but according to Rickfles (1991) There was involved massacres of China ethnic groups around Indonesia
3 Indonesia Troops – China 1959 – 1965 Almost 119.ooo china ethnic groups were deported to China
4 Dayak – Madura 1933 25 Madura ethnic groups were captured
5 Dayak – China 1967  1 Dayak ethnic were die
6 Dayak – Madura 1967 300 China ethnic groups were die and 55.000 evacuated
7 Dayak – Madura 1968  1 Dayak ethnic was die
8 Dayak – Madura 1976  1 Dayak ethnic was die
9 Dayak – Madura 1977  1 Dayak ethnic was die
10 Dayak – Madura 1979 40 Dayak and Madura ethnic groups were die
11 Dayak – Madura 1996-1997 300 people from both sides, Dayak, and Madurese were killed, 2000 missing and 1500 people displaced
12 Riots 1998 1000 ethnic Chinese victims of violence, and sexual harassment, reportedly hundreds of them died
13 Melayu – Madura 1999 3 people from Madura were die and 9000 people are returned to Madura
14 Dayak – Madura 2000 2000 Madura ethnic were die and 10.000 returned to 1000 ethnic Chinese victims of violence, and sexual harassment, reportedly hundreds of them Madura

   From case to case , migrants issues drawn significant attention to the government. However Differences are apparent from one region to another. Lets take an example of Yogyakarta, the place I live in, Once people Indonesia hear about Yogyakarta , the first thing that comes up in mind is “ Student City” . Why? Because since Indonesia independence, Yogyakarta became a center of educational progress in Indonesia.

   With a variety of roles, the city of Yogyakarta, a destination for many people from other regions, both students studying in Yogyakarta or tourist, allow acculturation to take place since it allows the contact between the local Jogja community with the settlers who originate from several different cultures. Therefore, Jogja of which is indeed a small town can serve a model for Indonesia’s national motto “Bhinekka Tunggal Ika” (Unity in Diversity) in addition to promote such international values of tolerance. This is particularly considering the several cultures that are present in this small city.

    Pluralism in Yogyakarta, especially with regard to cultural diversity, should be viewed as a positive element to create a harmonious society. The embodiment of pluralism in  the Yogyakarta community is rooted in the philosophy that fosters a sense of divinity and builds a sense of humanity rather than a religious sense. If such aspects are acknowledged, this would enable a harmonious society.

    Seen from the community only, Jogja impressively retains its customary rules, as well as the visible presence of the palace that still exists. The culture of Yogyakarta as Javanese society in fact is still bounded by customary rules. However, even by holding and preserving the traditional rules of Java, Yogyakarta society can accept from outside the cultural differences brought by the settlers. That’s because the basic principles of Java which does not necessarily behave in accordance to ethnocentrism.

  The existence of the place in the midst of globalization is a unifying symbol that can accept openly culture from the outside. With the principles of the spirit based on the philosophy Hamemayu Hayuning Bawana  (Maintaining good relations with human beings, fellow creatures, the universe and with the Almighty) and Hamangku-Hamengku-hamengkoni  ( throne For the People, and Welfare). Sultan Yogyakarta as a symbol of cultural leaders to protect both their own community as well as newcomers. So , with a variety of existing diversity, peace and a sense of unity as a community, Jogja remains lively.

    Based on my experience, Isaw so many people from do many region come and study. It reflects my life studying in Atmajaya University in Yogyakarta, most of my friends come from various regions in Indonesia including Madura, West Java, East Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Makasar or even Papua. Further more people from abroad visit Yogyakarta coming from Germany, France, Australia, United States, Japan, China, and many more. Something that I never expect is that they visit this city and exhibit a strong desire to know more about Yogyakarta, so here is my turning point to contribute something to them, something that people never expect that this is fundamental to mitigate the risk of migration issues, as aJogja person we have a concept of “ Rukun”(Harmony). For me , as a Javanese harmony is the core of the life balance.

   Furthermore we can say that harmony is the essence of the Javanese culture. This is confirmed further by Mulder in his mysticism and the daily life of the Javanese that the ideals of Javanese society is essentially a harmonious society .For the Javanese, social harmony or harmony is a big series for the welfare of living together. Because welfare is an absolute bound on social harmony, among others the divine, nature and fellow human beings. Thus it becomes clear the important role of social harmony.

    In Understanding the concept of harmony we will depart from the two values which are highly respected by the Javanese community proven by tne Japanese friends of me Ai Sigiura Internship in a Japanese NGO APEX (Asian People Exchange) testify that Yogyakarta was enlightening. It took a long time but I realized people were much happier here than in Paris or Brussels or any cities they lived in. At first, the difference of the meaning of time was very challenging and frustrating for me, but I realized that people here are living in the present and enjoying the present and therefore, they manage to be happier.

    Those values are harmony and respect. Both these values are highly respected by the people of java in the dynamics of everyday life. In addition, with the theme of harmony, both these values are discussed with a clear concept of harmony. According to ho hildered Geertz, the principle of harmony and respect in the java community is the basic principle of the most decisive in the lifestyle of the people of Java.

     First, the value of harmony. Javanese community holds that the pillars are prerequisites to maintain the condition of a harmonious society, peace, safety, and without conflict. Javanese community did my best to maintain harmony in their environment. How is it possible to expand this concept of harmony to a wider community.

   Important to note that the individual I deemed not very important in social standing. Individuals should always seek a broader social concern and not his own personal. Each person obliges others not to disrupt the social balance by ambition or personal interests. So in the end we can see that the culture in place people leaving is actually bring the change people mindset and attitude and one of recommend   and I I already prove that we as the youth is the agent of change, we just don’t realize that with Javanese culture reflect the universal positive message on how to be open mind and tolerance to everyone because from here we are prepared as community, community that is ready to face the globalization without considering who we are and we are from.

[1] http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/countries/indonesia-facts/).

[2]  Todd D. Nelson Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination (2009) Empirical Support for Intergroup Emotion Theory. No.289, 2009

[3] M.C. Ricklefs (1991), and Ainul Yaqin (2005)

[4] Dr. Purwadi, M. Hum. & Drs. Djoko Dwiyanto, M. Hum.,  Filsafat dan Ideologi ,2006

[5] (Mulder, 1983).

[6] hildered Geertz (1985, Keluaraga Jawa (Javanese Family))

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